Hematuria (blood in the urine) is a very common reason that patients are sent to the urologist. No amount of blood in your urine is normal but that doesn’t mean that it is caused by something dangerous. Hematuria can be microscopic (not seen except by laboratory studies) or macroscopic (can be seen by the naked eye).
The most common reason for blood in the urine is a urinary tract infection or an enlarged prostate. The most worrisome reason for having blood in the urine is cancer of the bladder or kidney. Having smoked in the past, exposure to industrial chemicals, and advanced age can be risk factors for having cancer. Nevertheless, all patients with hematuria should undergo an evaluation.
The standard evaluation for hematuria will include a cystoscopy in which the camera is placed into the bladder in office. Imaging of the bladder and the kidneys will also be obtained.